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MICROSOFT OFFICE EXCEL

A)  The home menu
Most of the functions under the here has been studied in word.

       Under the home menu go to Alignment Tool. There are two roles of alignment, the first for vertical alignment and the second for horizontal alignment.
       Chose an alignment from both roles depending on your purpose.
a)     Wrap text: This option permits text to be displayed vertically i.e. not going across a cell horizontally.
To carry out this function, under the home menu click on Wrap Text.
b)    Merge: This Option is use to join two or more cells.
       Highlights the cells you want to merge.
       Under the home menu click on Merge, Merge And Center or Merge Across. Under the Merge function, click on Unmerge to disjoin two or more cells previously joined.
c)     Conditional formatting: This function is use to format a cell for a particular reason such as identification purposes of some pertinent key data or range of data so as to distinguish a cell or cells from others. Under conditional formatting, we have the following rules
Highlight cell rule: This rule makes provision with the ability to distinguish between variables with respect to their numerical values. For example, you can decide to use a particular to identify all cells containing numbers less than ten in a set containing several different values. To perfect this study;
       Enter the values; 10, 3, 7, 12, 13 and 8 into the Excel spreadsheet with each value in its own cell.
       Highlight all cells containing values under study.
       Go to Conditional Formatting on the tool bar and left click on it.
       Go to Highlight Cell Rule.
       Left Click on Greater Than.
       Type 8 into the space provided.
All cells containing values greater than 8 are highlighted.
Top/Bottom rule: This rule is use to identify the either the most preferential or the least preferential item on a list. To perfect this study;
       Enter the values; 10, 3, 7, 12, 13 and 8 into the Excel spreadsheet with each value in its own cell.
       Highlight all cells containing values under study.
       Go to Conditional Formatting on the tool bar and left click on it.
       Go to Top/Bottom Rule.
       Left click on Top 10.
       Type 4 in the space provided.
       Select an identification color and click on Ok.
The cells containing the 4 top values is highlighted.
Data bars: Here the length of the Bar determines the value in the cell. A longer bar represents a greater value while a shorter bar represents a smaller value.
Color Scale: In this case, we use color gradient to determine the values in a cell. It can be two or three colors and the colors determine the values.
Icon Sets: Here icons are displayed from a set of icon cells. Each icons represents the value in the cell.
          To carryout conditional formatting for Data Bar, Color Scale and Icon Set, under the Home Menu;
       Click on Conditional Formatting.
       Select the rule which suit your purpose and proceed.
The formatting will be displayed on the cell(s).
N.B: The cell(s) must be highlighted before formatting.
e)  Formatting as table: This is to transform the virtual cells into a table format (virtual in the sense that when we print from excel, we can not see the cell lines on a hard copy). To execute this function;
       Highlight the group of cells to be formatted as table
       Click on format as table
       Select the table format you want depending on your purpose (the table is going to be displayed). Most often select the first design on the second row.
       Select Banded Column on the toolbar.
       Unselect Header Row on the toolbar.
f). Delete: This refers to the act of clearing the content of a cell, entire role or entire column. This function works as follows;
       Click on delete
       Select delete sheet/table row to delete a row
       Select sheet/table column to delete a column.
g). Insert:This is use to insert cells, column and rows into sheet or table.
Click on insert under the Home Menu to perform this task.
i). Formatting: This option is use to carryout functions pertaining to cell Visibility, Organize sheet and Protection.
Cell Size
       Click on format tool.
       Select format row height or column weight.
       Input the values in the provided space to vary the size.
       Click on Ok to confirm the value.
Visibility
       Under the Home Menu Click on Format.
       Under Visibility go to Hide & Unhide.
       Select the possible options to hide a row, column or sheet.
Organize sheet
       Click on format
       Under Organize sheet, click on rename sheet, enter the name using the keyboard and the click on an empty cell to finalize the renaming.
       Click on Move/Copy Sheet, select the position where you want to move the sheet to or select create a copy, to create a copy of the sheet and click on Ok to confirm.
Protection
       Click on Format.
       Under protection, click on protect sheet.
       Select the type of protection to carryout.
       Enter a Password for protection.
       Click on Ok.
       Click on Lock Cell to protect a cell from formatting by other users.
Format cell: This option is use to carry out cell formatting including, Font, Alignment, etc. to do this;
       Under the home menu click on Format
       Click on Format Cell.
       Select any of the options from the functional window below to proceed with cell editing.
h) Accounting number Format: This option is use to insert currency symbol
Left click on this function and select the currency symbol which you need for your purpose by clicking on it.
i). The thousands separator: this option is use to separate figures in thousands.
j) Function bar: This area is use to enter functions or formula to carry out a calculation. It is indicated as “fx”.
          At this juncture, we have come to understand the Home Menu of Microsoft Excel 2007 and how it works.
B) Page layout Menu
See Microsoft Word for more
a)     Print area: Click on print area to select an area on the spread sheet for printing.

Background: Click on background to attribute a ground design for a sheet.


a)     Print Title: select Print title to perform the following task

       Select a Print Area.
       Select row to be repeated at the top.
       Select column to be repeated at left.
       Select page order.
       Show grid lines.
Follow the other options such as Margins, Page or Header/Footer to proceed with more functions.
See Microsoft Word for more.
C) Insert Menu
a)    Chart
To insert a chart in excel;
       Enter the table of values to be used for the chart with respect to the categories and series.
       Highlight the entire table of values including the categories and series.
       Under the insert menu, select the type of chart to be produced by left clicking on it.
The chart will be produce automatically indicating the categories and columns. You can alter the position of the chart simply by dragging it using the left button of the mouse. (Place your mouse pointer on the mouse until you observe the four sided arrow. Left click and hold; then move with it to any position).
b)    Inserting Symbol.
Just like what we saw in Microsoft Office Word, we can use this option to insert signs and symbols into the Excel work Window.
c)     Inserting Object:
This provides us with the option of conveniently using and editing jobs that Excel on it own can not do. Through this process, we can access a working window of the program, carryout designs on this window and the results are presented on Excel window on closing this program.
To perfect this study; Under insert menu, click on Object, select an Object type and click on Ok. You can now carryout whatever designs you intended on a new working window. At the end of the designation, simply close the new window to make the design appear on the Excel page.
D) THE FORMULAS MENU

This is the most important and essential menu as far as Excel is concern. All kinds of calculations in Excel are being performed with the use of this menu.

To carryout any calculation, the data must have been inserted into the respective cells.
OR;
       Enter the data to be use for calculation
       Click on an empty cell to create an answer space
      


 

Click on Insert Function (fx)




       Select the function to be used or carried out,
       Select a category
       Or type a description of the function and click on Go
       Select the range of data to be use for this calculation,
       Click on OK
a)     Autosum: Autosum is a function which permits Excel to automatically sum all the data inserted in a group of cells.
To use the Auto function;
       Enter the values to be sum.
       Click on a destination cell where you want the answer to be displayed.
       Click on Autosum on the toolbar.
b)    Recently used: After using a formula, the computer assumes that formula may be needed in the nearest future for same calculation. Hence the recently use function makes provision of formulas that have just been used.
Under the formula menu, click on recently used in the toolbar to use this function.  
c)     Financial: This is a group of formula designed for financial calculation.
To access this function, under the formula menu click on Financial
d)    Logical: This is a function designed for logical calculations. Logical calculation involves conditional statement such as; YES, NO, IF, FALSE
Under the formula menu, click on logical to access this function.
e)     Date and Time: This option is used to insert Date or Time on a work sheet.
To carryout this function;
       Under the formula menu click on date and time (A functional window is going to open).
       Make a selection to suit your purpose by clicking on it.
       Fill in the values needed.
       Click on OKto finalize.
f)      Math and Trigonometry: This option is used to perform mathematical and Trigonometric functions.
To perform this function;
       Under the formula menu click on Math and Trig.
       Select a function that suit your purpose and click on it
       Input the variables or highlight the cell(s) which contain the variable to be calculated.
       Click on OKto finalize.
g)     More Function: In this option, we can search for all the formulae that exist under the formula menu if need be.
h)    Trace Precedent: Precedent here refers to the value or set of values from which the result (answer) is derived.
To exhibit this function;
       Click on formula menu.
       Go to formula auditing in the toolbar and select trace precedent.
          The precedent(s) will be indicated with blue arrow(s)
The purpose of this function is to trace the source of a result.
i)       Trace dependent: the dependent here refers to the set of results which is/are derive from the computation of a value(s).
To perform this function;
       Click on formula menu
       Go to formula auditing in the toolbar and select trace precedent.
          The precedent(s) will be indicated with blue arrow(s).
The purpose is to obtain the result that was being derived from the computation of a set of values.
Click on Remove arrow to undo the blue arrow(s).
j)       Define Name: Here we are provided with the option of naming a cell so as to identify it in formulas by name. names are used in formulas to make them easier to understand. The procedure is as follows;
       Highlight the cell(s) to be named.
       Under the formulas menu, click on Define Name.
       Enter the name using the keyboard.
       Click on Ok.
k)    Watch Window: It enables us to monitor the values of certain cell as changes are being made. These values are displayed in a separate area showing us the Book, Sheet, Define Name, Cell and Formula.
To add a value to the watch;
       Select the value to be added by left clicking on the cell containing the value.
       Under the Formulas Menu Click on Watch Window.
       Click on Add Watch.
       Click on Add to confirm.
Note: The name of the cell(s) is created using the Define Name function. To view the values in the Watch Window, click on Watch Window.
l)       Show Formulas: It is use to display the formulas in each cell for which it contain a result. To perform this; highlight the answer cell and click on Show Formula. It helps to obtain the formula that has been used to obtain a particular result.
m)  Evaluate Formula: Use to debug a formula. That is to evaluate each part of the formula individually to make sure the result gotten is the actual result.
n)    Calculation option: This is use to determine when a formula is calculated. The default setting is automatic. That is when a value is calculated that affects a result, the formula automatically redo the calculation with the new value. Click on Calculation Option to view seeting.
o)    Error Checking: Use to verify common errors.
DATA MENU
a)     Sort: This option is use to arrange data on several criteria such as; from A to Z, Z to A, Largest to Smallest or Smallest to Largest.
To Sort Data;
Under the Data Menu click on Sort (a dialogue box is going to open).
Click on Option to select orientation (i.e. from top to bottom or left to right) and click on OK.
Go to Sort By to select the column (in the case from top to bottom) or row (in the case from left to right) to be used for sorting.
Go to Select On to select a selection criterion.
Go to Order to select the order of sorting.
Click on Add Level to add another Level.
Click on Delete Level to delete a level.
Click on Copy Level to create a copy of and existing level.
Click on Ok.
b)    What-If Analysis: Under this function, we have the option of Goal Seek that will help us find the value of an input if the result to be obtained is known. That is, moving from dependent to precedent (there must exist a formula used for previous calculation of that type).
To perform this;
Under Data Menu click on What-If Analysis.
Select Goal Seek.
Input or select the cell whose value will be modified automatically as a result of a change of value  in the answer cell.
c)     Remove Duplicate: Use to remove repeated values in a column.
To perform this;
Select a cell found in the column where you want to remove duplicates.
Click on Remove Duplicates.
Select the column(s) to be checked for duplicates.
Click on OK.
d)    Text to Column: Use to separate the content of a cell into columns.
e)     Subtotal: Automatically sum the total of several rows by automatically creating a subtotal and grand total. To perform this task, highlight the rows whose grand total is to be obtained. Click on subtotal and then click on OK.

VIEW MENU
a)     Workbook View: This option is applicable in determining the type of view to be used for the workbook.
Click on Normal View to view the document in a normal mode.
Click on Page Layout to view the document as it will be printed on a hard copy. These enable us to know the area within printable page margin and also to view any available header or footer.
Click on page break preview to see where the page will break when printed on hard copy.
Click on Full Screen to view the document in full screen mode.
b)    Show/Hide: This option is used to Hide/Show; Grid lines, Headings, Formulas bar, etc. To execute this function; Tick to select or Untick to unselect.
c)     Zoom: This function is use to increase or decrease the magnification of characters.
Click on Zoom to vary the magnification.
Click on 100% to bring the magnification back to normal.
d)    Windows:
Click on New Window to create a new window having same content as previous.
Click on Arrange All to view existing workbook on the same work window.
Click on Split to divide working window into many section so as to enable the view of two different values at a far distance at same time.
Click on Freeze to keep a porting of a worksheet visible while the others are being scrolled.
Click on Hide to hide an active window sheet so that it can not be seen. To unhide, click on the Unhide function.

Click on Switch Window to switch to a different currently opened window. 

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